عنوان مقاله [English]
During the Qajar period, French religious and non-religious institutions gradually entered the Iranian cultural arena, focusing on the education of minorities and the establishment of cultural facilities in the Christian and Jewish regions of Iran. In this process, the city of Sanandaj, the administrative-political center of Ardalan Kurdistan, as one of the centers of the presence of religious minorities, including Assyrians and Chaldeans, was considered by these missionaries and cultural institutions at that time. They were established in this city and were completely different from the current education system of the Qajar period in terms of teaching methods and educational materials. In this descriptive-explanatory historical study, the question of why and how French schools were formed in Sanandaj during the Qajar era will be examined. This article shows that Sanandaj was considered by the French cultural institutions during the Qajar period due to the presence of minorities. Therefore, Lazarist schools, the French Alliance and the Israeli Alliance were formed there. This brought the educational system of religious minorities in Sanandaj to a new stage, and among the various social strata of the city, different reactions were made ranging from acceptance to disgust and pessimism.