The Three Famines and the Makings of a Malthusian Catastrophe in Iran (1869-1944)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه کرنل امریکا

چکیده

Iran suffered three catastrophic famines in the seventy-five-year span of 1869 to 1944. The population in 1945 was unchanged from that of 1840, a classic case of a Malthusian catastrophe. This article aims to assess the impact of the famines on Iran’s population level. It is first shown that the human losses in the Great Famine of 1869-1873 have been vastly understated in much of the literature. Two-thirds of the population was lost. Barely had Iran recovered its 1869 population when the Great Famine of 1917-1919 in World War I had carried off nearly half of the population. Finally, World War II and the resulting 1942-1944 famine and typhus epidemic had claimed a quarter of the population and again restored the 1840 population level. Only after 1945 was Iran able to shake off the Malthusian trap into which it had fallen for more than a century.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Three Famines and the Makings of a Malthusian Catastrophe in Iran (1869-1944)

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Gholi Majd
PhD in Agricultural Economics, Cornell University, New York, USA
چکیده [English]

Abstract : Iran suffered three catastrophic famines in the seventy-five-year span of 1869 to 1944. The population in 1945 was unchanged from that of 1840, a classic case of a Malthusian catastrophe. This article aims to assess the impact of the famines on Iran’s population level. It is first shown that the human losses in the Great Famine of 1869-1873 have been vastly understated in much of the literature. Two-thirds of the population was lost. Barely had Iran recovered its 1869 population when the Great Famine of 1917-1919 in World War I had carried off nearly half of the population. Finally, World War II and the resulting 1942-1944 famine and typhus epidemic had claimed a quarter of the population and again restored the 1840 population level. Only after 1945 was Iran able to shake off the Malthusian trap into which it had fallen for more than a century. . .

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • famines
  • starvation
  • disease
  • population loss
  • Malthusian Catastrophe
 
-     Aghajanian, Akbar, “Population Change in Iran, 1966-86: A Stalled Demographic Transition?” Population and Development Review 17, no. 4 (1991): 703-15, https://doi.org/10.2307/1973603.
-     Bassett, James, (1886), Persia: The Land of the Imams: A Narrative of Travel and Residence, 1871-1885, New York: Charles Scribner.
-     Bellew, Henry Walter, (1874), From the Indus to the Tigris: A Narrative of a Journey Through the Countries of Balochistan, Afghanistan, Khorasan and Iran, in 1872, London: Trubner.
-     Bharier, Julian, “A Note on the Population of Iran, 1900-1966,” Population Studies 22, no. 2 (1968): 273-79, https://doi.org/ 10.1080/00324728.1968.10405540.
-     Brittlebank, William, (1873), Persia During the Famine: A Narrative of a Tour in the East and the Journey Out and Home, London: Basil Montegu Pickering.
-     Collingham, Lizzie, (2012), The Taste of War: World War II and the Battle for Food, New York: Penguin Press.
-     Davis, Mike, (2002), Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World, London and New York: Verso.
-     Gilbar, Gad G., “Demographic Developments in Late Qajar Persia, 1870-1906,” Asian and African Studies 11, no. 2 (1976): 125-56.
-     Goldsmid, Major-General Sir Frederic J., “Journey from Bandar Abbas to Mash-Had by Sistan, with Some Account of the Last-named Province.” Journal of Royal Geographical Society 43 (1873): 65-83, https://doi.org/10.2307/1798621.
-     Gurney, John and Safatgol, Mansour, (2013) Qom dar Ghahti-e Bozorg-e 1288 (Qom in the Great Famine of 1871-1872), Qom: Grand Ayatollah Marashi Library.
-     Hari, Johann, “Not His Finest Hour: The Dark Side of Winston Churchill,” Independent, October 28, 2010, https://www. independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/not-his-finest-hour-the-dark-side-of-winston-churchill-2118317.html.
-     Jackson, Ashley, (2018), Persian Gulf Command: A History of the Second World War in Iran and Iraq, New Haven and London: Yale University Press; [Ann K. S. Lambton, Lampton papers, 16/37, quoted in page 241].
-     Kazemi, Ranin, “Of Diet and Profit: On the Question of Subsistence Crises in Nineteenth-Century Iran,” Middle Eastern Studies 52, no. 2 (2016): 335-58, https://doi.org/10.1080/00263206.2015.1119123.
-     MacGregor, Charles M., (1879), Narrative of a Journey Through the Province of Khorasan: N.W. Frontier of Afghanistan, 2 Vols.London: W. H. Allen; quoted in Seyf, “Iran and the Great Famine, 1870-72,” 297.
-     Majd, Mohammad Gholi, (2008), From Qajar to Pahlavi: Iran, 1919-1930, Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
-     Majd, Mohammad Gholi, (2013), The Great Famine & Genocide in Iran, 1917-1919, 2nd ed., Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
-     Majd, Mohammad Gholi, (2016), Iran under Allied Occupation in World War II: The Bridge to Victory & A Land of Famine, Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
-     Majd, Mohammad Gholi, (2018), A Victorian Holocaust: Iran in the Great Famine of 1869-1873, Lanham, MD: Hamilton Books.
-     McCulloch, J. R., (1841), A Dictionary, Geographical, Statistical, and Historical of Various Countries, Places, and Principle Natural Objects in the World, ed.
-     Henry Vethake, London: Longman, Vol. 2, 493, cited in Ahmad Seyf, “Population and Agricultural Development in Iran, 1800-1906,” Middle Eastern Studies 45, no. 3 (2009): 447-60, at 456, https://doi.org/10.1080/00263200902853439
-     Melville, Charles P., “The Persian Famine of 1870-1872: Prices and Politics,” Disasters 12, no. 4 (1988): 309-25, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7717.1988.tb00685.x
-     Millspaugh, Arthur C., (1926), The Financial and Economic Situation in Persia, 1926, New York: Imperial Persian Government/Persia Society.
-     Moorehead, Alan, (1943), A Year of Battle, London: Hamish Hamilton.
-     Mounsey, August H., (1872),  A Journey Through the Caucasus and the Interior of Persia, London: Smith, Elder.
-     Mukerjee, Madhursee, (2010), Churchill’s Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India during World War II, New York: Basic Books.
-     Nashat, Guity, (1982), The Origins of Modern Reform in Iran, 1870-80, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 39-40; cited in Melville, “Persian Famine of 1870-1872,” 315.
-     National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 59 (RG59), State Department Decimal Files, 891.5018/-, June 17, 1925 (In this article cited NARA, by record group, file, and date).
-     Okazaki, Shoko, “The Great Persian Famine of 1870-71,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 49, no. 1 (1986), https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00042609
-     Presbyterian Church in the USA, Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, Correspondence and Reports, 1833-1911 (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1953-1969), Iran (Persia), D3325, microfilm reel 101.
-     Seyf, Ahmad, “Iran and the Great Famine, 1870-72,” Middle Eastern Studies 46, no. 2 (2010): 289-306, https://doi.org/ 10.1080/00263201003616584.
-     Shuster, W. Morgan, (1912), The Strangling of Persia, New York: Century Press.
-     Slim, William, (2008), Unofficial History, Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword Books.
-     St. John, Oliver B., and Beresfort Lovett, Euan Smith, and W. T. Blanford, (1876), Eastern Persia: An Account of the Journeys of the Persian Boundary Commission, 1870-71-72, intro. Major-General Sir Frederic John Goldsmid, 2 Vols., London: MacMillan.
-     Stack, Edward, (1882), Six Months in Persia, 2 Vols., London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, Vol.2.
-     Sykes, Sir Percy M., (1921), A History of Persia, 2nd ed., 2 Vols., London: MacMillan.
-     Thielmann, Max von, (1875), Journey in the Caucasus, Persia, and Turkey in Asia, trans. Charles Heneage, F. R. G. S., 2 vols. London: John Murray.
-     Toye, Richard, (2010), Churchill’s Empire: The World that Made Him and the World He Made, New York: Henry Holt.
-     Ussher, John, (1865), A Journey from London to Persepolis: Including Wanderings in Daghestan, Georgia, Armenia, Kurdistan, Mesopotamia, and Persia, London: Hurst and Blackett.
-     Walsh, Pat, “Who Remembers the Persians…?” Irish Foreign Affairs 3, no. 3 (2010): 4-7, https://www.scribd.com/document/ 254702728/Who-Remembers-the-Persians-Pat-Walsh.
-     Wills, C. J. MD, (1883), In the Land of Lion and Sun, or, Modern Persia: Being Experiences of Life in Persia during a Residence of Fifteen Years in Various Parts of that Country from 1866 to 1881, Late One of the Medical Officers of Her Majesty’s Telegraph Department in Persia, London: MacMillan.