عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The focus of this paper is to explain the role and function of guilds in the Safavi era. Therefore, awareness of this issue is important from several perspectives: First, explaining the structure and formations governing guilds in the Safavid era as one of the most essential institutions in the community. Second, absence of guild-oriented economic idea in researches done about Safavi era and adopting the approach of determining the status and role of guilds in the Safavi era. Since no comprehensive research has been done on the conditions of guilds in the Safavi era, conducting research on this topic is a novel work. Prior to this, some scattered descriptions of the name and application of Safavi guilds have been presented.
In this study, we examined the role and status of guilds in the Safavi era. Then, their subordinate institutions were classified and introduced thereafter. After that, two main guilds, their lifestyles and livelihoods were mentioned. Furthermore and in an important part of this paper, both internal and external structures of guilds were classified. Finally, the assessment and analysis of the hierarchy of these guilds were discussed. Internal structures and formations (hierarchy) of the guilds in this era included: ealdorman, head of market, master, worker or artisan, and apprentice. Also, the external structures and formations (hierarchy) of the guilds in this era such as sheriff, superintendent, Muhtasib (adviser), and security officer, who was the Chief of Security and had some judicial powers of judges, were discussed. The data was collected via library method. Furthermore, descriptive – analytical approach was adopted for this study. The data and information were collected from various sources and conclusions and analyses were done based on these findings.