عنوان مقاله [English]
In the early 16th century, Portugal was able to dominate important parts of the Orient, including the Persian Gulf. These first colonizers were the undisputed rulers of the East for almost a century, but gradually in the early seventeenth century (AH) their domination faced major obstacles and international conditions changed to their detriment. The occupied territories of Portugal one after another came out from their hand and eventually led to their expulsion in the Persian Gulf. This article seeks to find an answer to the question: What were the internal and external factors of the decline of the Portuguese in the Persian Gulf? This research has used a descriptive-analytical approach using library resources to find the causes of this decline. Findings indicate that two groups of factors led to the weakness and decline of the Portuguese. The first category can be considered as the external factors that occurred outside the Persian Gulf region like Europe and its effects led to the weakening of Portuguese domination in the colonies, including the Persian Gulf. Among these factors were the small population of Portugal, the occupation of Portugal by Spain, the rise of other powerful European countries like Britain and the Netherlands to the East and the Ottoman entry into the Persian Gulf issues. The second category must be considered as the internal factors, such as the irrational policies of the Portuguese in the Persian Gulf, including hitting the region's trade and economy, religious bigotry and anti-Islamic actions that led to the reaction of regional governments and popular uprisings against them.