عنوان مقاله [English]
In discourses concerned with the Islamic state ghaza was a central concept from the time of the Prophet of Islam. The term ghaza has its root in ghazwa or Muslim wars led by the Prophet himself against infidels.After the death of the Prophet of Islam, such historians as al-Waqidi used al-Maghazi(the plural of ghaza/ghazwa) for the prophet’s battles, and al-Futuh (the plural of fath) for the battles after him as well as the conquests of both the Roman and Persian Empires. However from the Umayyad period in particular in the Abbasid age. The geographical areas of the ghaza in the north against the Russians, Georgians, Armenians and the Khazars (Turks). Althoughghaza was apparently intended to spread Islam, it was also a means of seizing the war booty, territorial expansion, enslavement and also contributed to bolstering the ligitamacy of rulers among the community. By using a descriptive-analytical method,this articledeals with the holy war of Muslim rulers with non-Muslims in the Caucasian borders (the Russians, Georgians, Armenians, and Khazars/Turks) from the Umayyad period to the Battle of Malazgird.However a significant point that distinguished their wars (ghazas) from those on the other fronts was that they could extend the scope of their conquests of the periods of the Caliphate Rashidun to northern Caucasia. In this region they had mainly taken up a defensive position and in most cases with the help of volunteer ghazis were repelling the attacks of these four groups.