عنوان مقاله [English]
After the establishment of the Tsarist regime in Russia, Iranian rule in the Caspian Sea was gradually challenged. Challenges of Iranian sovereignty in the Caspian Sea during the Qajar period, after two periods of war with Russia and the conclusion of the Golestan and Turkmenchay treaties led to the deprivation of Iranian sovereignty in this sea. In such circumstances, the conclusion of the Russo-Persian Treaty of Friendship (1921 AD) raised hopes of restoring Iranian sovereignty in the Caspian Sea. The present study, relying on the systemic theory of International Politics by Kenneth Waltz and using the method of historical research and examining the archival documents, seeks to answer this question, “What challenges were faced by the sovereignty of Iran in the Caspian Sea in the years 1300 to 1304, after the conclusion of the Russo-Persian Treaty of Friendship (1921 AD)? The research findings show that contrary to the provisions of the Friendship Treaty, the sovereignty of Iran in the Caspian Sea in the years 1300 to 1304 faced serious economic and political challenges by the Soviet government, the same as what happened in the Tsarist rule. The spread of smuggling with the support of the Soviet government, disruption of trade and the periodic rise in the prices of exported and imported goods, economic challenges and the spread of insecurity and a sense of fear, violation of the national sovereignty and territorial integrity, interference in Iran's internal and political affairs and finally supporting and inciting divergent forces against the central government were among the political challenges faced by the Iran rule in the Caspian Sea from the years 1300 to 1304.